Literature review on the Crees’ environmental and social concerns

The Crees have witnessed major economic and industrial developments in their territory since the first big hydroelectric projects in the 1970s: mines, roads, forestry (in the southern part of the James Bay region) as well as more hydroelectric projects, such as Eastmain-1A/Rupert in the early 2000s.

Development in the James Bay region accelerated in the wake of the Plan Nord. Needless to say, even though the Crees were stakeholders in this development in some cases, the resulting changes have had an impact on the environment, resources, and the way of life of several generations and on several levels.

The Section 22 regime was designed to protect the Territory and the Cree people as they existed in 1975, the year the JBNQA was signed. However, the JBACE’s examination of laws, regulations and policies that could affect the environment and social milieu in Cree territory is only relevant if it takes into consideration the current concerns of the people targeted by the regime. That is the context in which the JBACE mandated SNC-Lavalin to conduct a literature review and identify the Crees’ environmental and social concerns over the last 10 years.

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